文章摘要
理工科博士生级联指导模式比学徒指导模式更有效吗——基于全国研究生院高校博士生的实证研究
Is the Cascading Mentoring Mode for PhD Students in Science and Engineering More Effective than the Apprentice Mentoring Mode? Based on the Empirical Research of Doctoral Students in Graduate Schools in China
投稿时间:2020-12-29  
DOI:10.19834/j.cnki.yjsjy2011.2021.06.06
中文关键词: 级联指导;博士研究生;科研训练
英文关键词: cascading mentoring;doctoral students;scientific research training
基金项目:教育部人文社科青年基金项目"学术社会化视角下博士生科研能力的形成机制及其提升研究"(19YJC880046)
作者单位
李永刚 天津大学 教育学院/教育科学研究中心, 天津 300350 
方亚丽 天津大学 教育学院/教育科学研究中心, 天津 300350 
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中文摘要:
      级联指导模式在大科学时代的初级研究人才培养中日益盛行,我国主要研究型大学中超过三分之一的理工科博士生是在级联指导下成长。与传统认知学徒指导模式相比,级联指导并没有表现出明显的优越性,在学术志趣、知识深度理解、研究原创性和问题提出能力等核心科研素养上显著弱于认知学徒指导的效果。不过级联指导中的青年研究者与认知学徒指导中的导师在博士生科研生产力、部分科研认知能力和研究技能等的指导效果上不相上下,实验室合作教师可以有效弥补团队科学研究中导师指导精力稀缺的不足。作为科研后发型国家,博士生培养单位应构建以研究方向为纽带的级联指导模式;增强导师对博士生关键科研能力的直接指导;建立青年研究者参与博士生指导的激励机制;营造自由平等的科研互助文化。
英文摘要:
      As the cascading mentoring mode is increasingly popular in the cultivation of junior research talent in the era of big science, more than one third of the doctoral students in science and engineering at major research universities in China are cultivated under the mode. The authors find that compared with traditional cognitive apprentice mentoring mode, the cascading mentoring mode does not show significant superiority. In terms of core scientific and research abilities such as academic interest, deep understanding of knowledge, originality of research, and ability to raise questions, it is significantly weaker than the cognitive apprentice mentoring mode. However, in terms of the improvement of doctoral students' scientific research productivity and part of the scientific research cognition and research skills, the guidance effect by young researchers in cascading mentoring mode and that by supervisors in cognitive apprentice mentoring mode are on par with each other. The authors also find laboratory cooperative teachers can effectively make up for the lack of guidance energy of supervisors in teamed scientific research. Therefore, the authors suggest that as China is a later country in developing scientific research, doctoral training institutions should establish a cascading mentoring mode with research direction as the link, strengthen direct guidance of supervisors to doctoral students in some key scientific research capabilities, establish an incentive mechanism for young researchers to participate in guiding doctoral students, and foster a free and equal culture of scientific research and mutual assistance.
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