文章摘要
英美顶尖大学如何设计导师培训?——基于罗素与常春藤盟校等顶尖大学的制度考察
How do Top Universities in the UK and the US Design Training for Postgraduate Supervisors? Aninstitutional study based on top universities within Russell and Ivy League
投稿时间:2021-04-21  
DOI:10.19834/j.cnki.yjsjy2011.2021.04.14
中文关键词: 研究生导师;导师培训;英美顶尖大学
英文关键词: postgraduate supervisor;supervisor training;top universities in the UK and the US
基金项目:天津大学自主创新基金"理工科卓越研究生导师的指导机制研究"(2018xsc-0022);天津大学研究生创新人才培养项目专项课题"我国高校研究生导师评价指标体系研究"(YCX202186)
作者单位
申超 天津大学 教育学院/教育科学研究中心, 天津 300354 
杨兆豪 天津大学 教育学院/教育科学研究中心, 天津 300354 
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中文摘要:
      研究生导师培训是当今世界一流大学提高导师指导能力、优化导师队伍建设的重要途径。从制度设计来看,英国顶尖大学以程序化和强制性的培训组织形式,开展了旨在帮助导师明晰职责、树立正确指导观以及传授指导技巧的导师培训;美国顶尖大学以无确定程序且非强制的培训组织形式,开展了以问题解决为导向的导师培训。两国顶尖大学的导师培训制度设计均有利于导师加快其角色扮演的进程,区别在于英国顶尖大学的导师培训有利于加强导师与学校价值观的一致性,形成组织秩序,但在促进导师的个性化发展和角色创新方面似存在不足。而美国顶尖大学的导师培训有利于导师改变以往的工作方式及角色承担方法,产生新的角色倾向,但不利于提早规避新任导师职业发展的不确定性和焦虑感。揭示两国顶尖大学导师培训制度的特点、差异以及各自的优劣,对于完善我国高校的研究生导师培训制度具有重要的启示意义。
英文摘要:
      Nowadays, the postgraduate supervisor training is an important way to improve the ability of supervisors and optimize the construction of supervisor teams at the world first-class universities. From the perspective of institutional design, the top universities in the UK carry out trainings in a programmed and mandatory organization format aiming at helping supervisors clarify their responsibilities, establishing a correct concept of guidance, and imparting guidance skills, while those in the USA carry out problem-solving oriented supervisor trainings in a non-mandatory organization format without a pre-set program. Generally speaking, the designs of the supervisor training systems at the top universities in the two countries are conducive to accelerating role-playing process of supervisors. Yet specifically speaking, those in the UK are good for strengthening the consistency of values between supervisors and schools so as to form an organizational order, but it seems the designs are insufficient in promoting personalized development and supervisors' role innovation, and those in the USA are beneficial to improving the previous working methods and role-playing methods of supervisors, resulting in new role tendencies, but however, it is not conducive to avoiding in advance the uncertainty and anxiety of new supervisors in their career development. The authors believe that to reveal the characteristics, differences, advantages and disadvantages of the supervisor training systems at top universities in the two countries is of great thought-provoking significance for the universities in China to improving their postgraduate supervisor training system.
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