文章摘要
博士生申请考核制招生制度的现状、问题与改进——基于2017年6所“985高校”博士生招生简章的分析
Status quo of, Problems in, and Way to Improve Doctoral Student Application, Examination and Admission System: Based on the Textual Analysis of the Doctoral Student Enrollment Guides from Six “985” Higher-learning Institutions in 2017
投稿时间:2018-01-16  
DOI:
中文关键词: 博士生;招生制度;申请考核制;文本分析
英文关键词: doctoral student;enrollment system;application and examination system;textual analysis
基金项目:上海市人民政府决策咨询研究项目"博士研究生申请——考核制招生制度研究"(2017-Z-R07)。
作者单位
刘阳 复旦大学 高等教育研究所, 上海 200433 
林荣日 复旦大学 高等教育研究所, 上海 200433 
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中文摘要:
      选取6所"985高校"作为研究对象,以2017年6所高校及其院系的159份博士生招生简章作为研究样本,建立申请条件、考核方式、考核标准、导师权力、监督机制等观测指标,研究发现:申请条件重英语水平和科研成果,但存在院校出身歧视之嫌;考核方式未放弃笔试考察,但面试难以有效评价考生能力;考核标准和评分方式规定模糊,增加评价的主观性和随意性;导师个体招生权力过大,给公平公正选拔带来风险;监督机制缺乏细致全面的规定,为招生权力的滥用留下空间。为此提出取消院校出身限制,改硬性条件为弹性条件;结合多种考核方式,全方位考察考生素质;考核标准指标化,降低评价的主观随意性;合理分配导师权力,遵循择优录取原则;健全监督保障机制,完善配套制度等改进措施。
英文摘要:
      Based on the six "985" higher-learning institutions as research objects, and 159 doctoral student enrollment guides from the six "985" higher-learning institutions in 2017 as research samples, the author establishes such observation indexes as those for application conditions, evaluation mode, evaluation criteria, decision power of supervisor, and supervision mechanism. Through the study, the author finds that in terms of application preconditions, the priority is given to English proficiency and scientific research results, but unfortunately, it is suspicious that university origin discrimination exists; in terms of examination methods, written test is still in use, yet it is still difficult to evaluate a candidate's ability in oral examination or an interview; the stipulations of evaluation criteria and scoring methods are vague, making the evaluation more subjective and arbitrary; the supervisor's personal decision making power in student admission is too big, which brings risk to a selection of justice and fair; the supervision mechanism lacks detailed and comprehensive regulations that may leave room for the abuse of enrollment power. Therefore, the author proposes to abolish the restrictions on university origin and change the rigid conditions into elastic conditions; to combine various assessment methods together and evaluate candidate quality in all directions; to make the evaluation standard index-like and reduce the subjective arbitrariness in evaluation; rationally allocate the decision making power to supervisors and follow the principle of score-based admission; and to improve supervision and safeguard mechanisms, improve other improvement measures such as supporting system and quality-insurance mechanism.
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