文章摘要
美国STEM国际研究生教育规模调控的博弈与激进
The Game of the International STEM Postgraduate Education Scale Adjustment and Its Radical Development in the United States
投稿时间:2022-10-26  
DOI:10.19834/j.cnki.yjsjy2011.2023.02.12
中文关键词: STEM;研究生教育;国际学生规模;博弈
英文关键词: STEM;postgraduate education;international students scale;game
基金项目:中国学位与研究生教育学会重大课题"研究生培养体系研究与重构"(2020ZAA2)
作者单位
廖湘阳 湖南师范大学 教育科学学院, 长沙 410081 
胡颖 湖南师范大学 教育科学学院, 长沙 410081 
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中文摘要:
      美国STEM研究生教育体系有着明显的依赖国际学生的特征。依托国际学生创新与担心本土技术外溢、聚集世界拔尖人才与担忧人才归国反向流动、抢占教育产业利润与本土学生就业诉求、利用国际学生优化教育平台与保护本国学生学习机会等相互冲突的利益诉求左右着美国STEM领域国际研究生教育政策的变动。近年来逆全球化思潮涌动,美国加大STEM国际研究生进入的限制力度,以OPT项目为杠杆调控STEM高学历国际人才移民政策,实施STEM领域国内人才和国际人才"双管齐下"战略。美国STEM国际研究生教育政策的选择与调整体现出一种轮回之轨和变化之道,而其实质是更好地服务美国国家战略。
英文摘要:
      The STEM postgraduate education system in the United States is clearly characterized by its dependence on international students. The changes of international postgraduate education policies in the STEM field have been influenced by the conflicting interest demands between relying on international students for innovation and worrying about national technology spillover, between gathering world's top talents and worrying about a reverse flow of talents who return home, and between seizing the profits of education industry and the employment demands of local students, as well as between making use of international students to optimize education platforms and protecting learning opportunities for domestic students. Due to the anti-globalization trend of thought over recent years, the United States increases the control over international STEM postgraduates to enter its country, adopts the OPT program as a lever to regulate the immigration policy for highly educated international STEM talents,and implements the strategy of expanding the domestic talent scale, while still allures talents all over the world and encourages them to stay in the United States. The policy making and adjustment of the United States on international STEM postgraduate education showcases a kind of cyclic route in its change, and its essence is to better serve the national strategy of the United States.
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