文章摘要
我国高等工程教育的发展历程、基本特征与改革方向
History,Characteristics and Reform Orientation of Higher Engineering Education in China
投稿时间:2022-03-28  
DOI:10.19834/j.cnki.yjsjy2011.2022.03.01
中文关键词: 工程教育;发展阶段;培养阶段;共性要求;分类指导
英文关键词: engineering education;stage of development;stage of education;general requirements;targeted guidance
基金项目:国家自然科学基金委管理学部2020年第1期应急管理项目"新时代行业特色高校治理模式与创新发展研究"(72041014)
作者单位
张炜 西北工业大学, 西安 710072 
汪劲松 西北工业大学, 西安 710072 
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中文摘要:
      我国高等工程教育的发展历程可以划分为起步、重构、调整、扩张、创新五个阶段,不同发展阶段呈现出不同的特征;在专科、本科、研究生等不同培养阶段,工程教育的办学定位和培养模式虽有明显差异,但都需遵循工程教育的共性要求,主动适应社会需求;未来,工程教育既要有效集成通识教育与专业教育、课堂教学与实习实践、知识传授与技能培训等要素,也应加强分类指导,发挥专科在职业教育中的重要作用,进一步细分工程本科教育,区分学术型研究生与专业型研究生的培养要求与模式,加快培养经济社会高质量发展所需要的创新型、应用型、技能型工程人才,实现工程教育的高质量发展。
英文摘要:
      The higher engineering education development in China can be divided into five stages: start-up, reconstitution, adjustment, expansion, and innovation, each with some distinctive features. Although junior colleges, regular universities and postgraduate schools take different school-running orientations and training modes in higher engineering education for students, they all adapt themselves to the needs of the society. The authors suggest that in the future, we should observe the general requirements of the engineering education and integrate effectively liberal education, professional education, classroom teaching, worksite practice, knowledge imparting, and skill training together. At the same time, we should strengthen targeted guidance to categorized student groups, give full play to junior colleges in vocational education, further classify engineering education at regular universities, and clarify education requirements and define training modes for academic postgraduates and professional postgraduates respectively. The authors also suggest that we speed up the cultivation of students into innovative, applied, and skilled engineering professionals for high-quality development of the economic society for the realization of a high-quality development of engineering education.
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