文章摘要
从学习主体到知识主体——知识变迁视域中的研究生主体地位转变
From Learning Subject to Knowledge Subject:The Change of Postgraduate Subject Status in the Perspective of Knowledge Change
投稿时间:2021-08-06  
DOI:10.19834/j.cnki.yjsjy2011.2022.02.03
中文关键词: 学习主体;知识主体;明确知识;默会知识;暗知识;转变
英文关键词: learning subject;knowledge subject;explicit knowledge;tacit knowledge;dark knowledge;change
基金项目:陕西师范大学研究生教育教学改革研究项目"知识变迁背景下的研究生教学改革研究"(GERP-20-21)
作者单位
李忠 陕西师范大学 教育学部, 西安 710062 
周亮 陕西师范大学 教育学部, 西安 710062 
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中文摘要:
      学习主体与知识主体是学生作为教学主体的两种形式,两者背后却是不同甚至冲突的教学理念。在学习主体视域中,学生主要关注如何全面、准确地接受与占有既定的明确知识,明确知识本身不能发生变化;在明确知识面前,学生只能服从而不能主宰,因而只是形式主体,学生发展受到严格限制。在知识主体视域中,学生不仅要关注既定的明确知识,更要关注不确定性的默会知识与人工智能掌握的暗知识;在这些知识面前,学生是它们的主宰者与使用者,因而是实质主体,学生发展机会大幅增加。作为最高层次的学历教育者,研究生需要完成从学习主体到知识主体的转变。这种转变至少意味着:其一,知识领域的拓展,即明确知识、默会知识以及暗知识,都是学生要关注的知识;其二,获取知识方式的拓展,即获得知识不仅有接受和占有,还有实践、反省与应用;其三,学生主体角色的拓展,即学生由知识的接受者与占有者拓展为知识的应用者与更新者,并通过知识的进化实现研究生教育质量的提升。
英文摘要:
      Learning subject and knowledge subject are two forms of students as teaching subject,but behind them are different and even conflicting teaching ideas.In the perspective of learning subject,students mainly focus on how to fully and accurately accept and occupy the established clear knowledge,and make clear that knowledge itself cannot change;In front of clear knowledge,students can only obey but can't dominate,so they are only formal subjects,and their development is strictly limited.In the perspective of knowledge subject,students should not only pay attention to the established clear knowledge,but also pay attention to the uncertain tacit knowledge and the dark knowledge mastered by artificial intelligence.In front of these knowledge,students are the masters and users of them,so they are the substantive subjects,and students'development opportunities are greatly increased.As the highest level of education,graduate students need to complete the transformation from the subject of learning to the subject of knowledge.This change means at least:first,the expansion of knowledge field,namely explicit knowledge,tacit knowledge and dark knowledge,are the knowledge that students should pay attention to;Second,the expansion of the way to acquire knowledge,that is,the acquisition of knowledge not only has acceptance and possession,but also has practice,reflection and application;Third,the expansion of the main role of students,that is,students from the receiver and occupant of knowledge to expand knowledge application and renewal,and through the evolution of knowledge to achieve the improvement of graduate education quality.
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