文章摘要
教育资源供给如何驱动美国博士授予规模扩张——基于系统动力学模型的仿真分析
How the Supply of Educational Resources Promotes the Scale Expansion of PhDs in the United States: Simulation analysis based on system dynamics model
投稿时间:2020-04-07  
DOI:10.19834/j.cnki.yjsjy2011.2020.05.12
中文关键词: 教育资源供给;博士授予规模;驱动效应;系统动力学;美国
英文关键词: educational resource supply;PhD Scale;driving effect;system dynamics;the US
基金项目:国家社科基金一般项目"协同学视阈下博士生培养模式的国际比较研究"(BDA140028)
作者单位
王梅 天津大学 教育学院, 天津 300354 
张增 天津大学 教育学院, 天津 300354 
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中文摘要:
      博士授予规模是一国创新力与竞争力的体现,教育资源供给是驱动博士授予规模扩张的主要动因。结合1979-2016年美国相关数据,采用系统动力学模型分析师资、经费以及制度资源供给对美国博士授予规模的驱动效应。研究发现,对美国博士授予规模具有正向驱动作用的分别是招聘与遴选周期、任期年限、指导制度。晋升与离职率、学科规模、导师制度带来的驱动效应具有时期差异性。教师增长过快、修业年限延长会抑制博士授予规模的扩张。研究还得出高等教育研发经费投入和资助力度的有效区间。借鉴相关经验,为促进博士规模提升,我国需延长招聘周期,动态调整师资存量;发挥政策风向标作用,推进博导岗位化管理;在合理把控资助力度的基础上拓宽经费来源;在改革导师制度的同时有效推动文科发展。
英文摘要:
      The scale of PhD degrees conferred is the embodiment of a country's innovation strength and competitiveness, and the supply of educational resources is the main driving force for the scale expansion of PhDs. With the reference of the relevant data in the United States from the year 1979 to 2016, this paper uses the system dynamics model to analyze the driving effects of teachers, funding, and institutional resource supply on the expansion of the PhD scale in the US. The study finds that the positive driving factors to the scale expansion of PhDs in the United States are respectively the recruitment and selection time limit, the fixed time of the employment, and the guidance system. The effect of such driving factors as promotion, job quit rate, the discipline size, and the supervisor system is variable at different times. When the number of teachers grows too fast and the study duration is prolonged, the expansion scale slows down. The study also finds the effective range that involves the input of the higher-education R&D fund and the change of subsidies. With the reference of others' experience, the authors suggest that to promote the scale expansion of PhDs, China should extend the recruitment time limit and dynamically adjust the size of the faculty; give full play to the guidance function of the policy and improve the supervisor-post management; broaden fund source while reasonable control subsidies; and reform the supervisor system while effectively promote the development of liberal arts.
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