文章摘要
美国一流大学博士生培养的经验及启示——基于对加州大学洛杉矶分校博士生的访谈分析
Experience and Implication of Doctoral Cultivationat a World-class American University: Based on the analysis of the interviews with doctoral students at UCLA
投稿时间:2020-02-21  
DOI:10.19834/j.cnki.yjsjy2011.2020.04.15
中文关键词: 美国一流大学;加州大学洛杉矶分校;博士生培养;博士生教育
英文关键词: world-class American university;University of California, Los Angeles;doctoral student cultivation;doctoral student education
基金项目:陕西省社会科学基金年度项目(2019Q024);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目(19SZYB12)
作者单位
陈玥 陕西师范大学 教育学院, 西安 710062 
翟月 北京大学 教育学院, 北京 100871 
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中文摘要:
      运用深度访谈法对美国一流大学加州大学洛杉矶分校博士生培养的有效策略进行研究发现,该校在博士生培养中积累了诸多经验,即建立广博的模块化课程体系,重在"过程"中培养博士生;重视跨学科在博士生培养中的作用,汲取不同学科的方法和智慧;加强博士生资格考试,重视对"过程"的监控并严格执行淘汰制度;通过颇具特色的"研究学徒会",强化导师对博士生的指导;通过助教、助研等岗位实践,为博士生提供多方"隐性"支撑;宽松自由的学习氛围,确保博士生开展"纯粹"的研究。最后,借鉴美国一流大学博士生培养的主要经验,结合我国博士生培养的现实情况,提出改进我国博士生培养的具体策略。
英文摘要:
      Based on the in-depth interviews at UCLA, a world's first-class university in the United States, this paper studies the effective strategies the university has taken for its doctoral student education. Subsequently, this paper finds many good practices the university has developed for its cultivation of doctoral students, i.e. the establishment of an extensive modular course system with the focus on cultivating doctoral students in the education process; the priority given to the interdisciplinary role in doctoral education so as to make good use of the methods and wisdom of different disciplines; the importance attached to doctoral qualification examination with the emphasis on cultivation process monitoring and strict implementation of the policy to drop out students whose performance could not live up to the expectation; the establishment of a featured "research apprentices' society" to strengthen the guidance of supervisors to doctoral students; the establishment of TA and RA practice posts, which provides various "hidden" benefits for doctoral students; and the unrestricted and liberal learning atmosphere that ensures pure research by doctoral students. In conclusion, the authors, with reference to the experience of the world-class American universities and in considering the practical conditions of China in cultivating doctoral students, propose some specific measures for improving the cultivation of doctoral students in China.
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