文章摘要
美国专业博士生教育的演变与比较
Evolution of Professional Doctoral Education in the United States and in Comparison with China
投稿时间:2020-02-20  
DOI:10.19834/j.cnki.yjsjy2011.2020.03.15
中文关键词: 专业教育;博士学位;统计标准;定位与质量;美国
英文关键词: professional education;doctorate;statistics standard;positioning and quality;USA
基金项目:国家自然科学基金委管理学部2018年第4期应急管理项目(71841044)
作者单位
张炜 西北工业大学, 西安 710072 
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中文摘要:
      现代意义上的专业博士学位在美国已有200年的历史,美国教育部国家教育统计中心(NCES)关于博士的新定义,不仅使得其博士数据出现重大变化,也体现了对于专业博士的认可和肯定。我国专业博士生教育启动较晚,尽管发展速度很快,但绝对和相对规模都远低于美国。应充分认识高等教育发展的外部因素和自身动力,明确专业博士生教育的培养定位与质量标准,优化规模结构,加大产教融合,健全评价体系,科学比较借鉴,实现高质量内涵式发展。
英文摘要:
      The professional doctorate in modern sense has a history of 200 years in the United States. The new definition of doctorate by the US National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) not only changes greatly the data of doctorates, but also shows the recognition and affirmation of the professional doctorate by the center. The professional doctoral education in China started late. Although it has developed very fast, the absolute scale and relative scale are far smaller than those of the United States. Therefore, the author suggests that we should fully understand the external factors and internal motivation for the development of higher education, make clear the training target and quality standards for professional doctoral education, optimize the scale structure, increase the integration between industry and education, improve the evaluation system, and scientifically compare and learn experience from the outside world so as to realize high-quality and intensive development.
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