文章摘要
我国学位授权审核法治化的困境与出路
Dilemma of and Solution to the Legalization of Degree Authorization Review in China
投稿时间:2020-02-25  
DOI:10.19834/j.cnki.yjsjy2011.2020.03.14
中文关键词: 学位;学位制度;学位条例;学位授权审核;正当程序
英文关键词: academic degree;academic degree system;academic degree regulations;degree authorization review;due procedures
基金项目:教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地重大项目"公法争议与公法救济研究"(16JJD820001)
作者单位
靳澜涛 北京大学 法学院, 北京 100871 
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中文摘要:
      作为学位授予权行使的前提,学位授权审核既是学校综合实力的检验,也是国家宏观调控的手段,在学位结构调整、院校资源配置、重点学科建设等方面发挥了重要作用。但是,此项制度的现实问题也不容忽视,如分配指标的行政指令有碍办学自主权的行使;纵向权力关系未获完整的法律表达;评审过程的自由裁量空间过大等。欲实现学位授权审核的法治化,总体定位必须回归行政许可属性,遵循《行政许可法》设计相关规则;评审对象应当锁定特定专业,更有针对性地建立同行评审机制;监管方式应由事前指标控制转为动态过程监管,更多地发挥教育市场竞争机制的自发调节作用;权限配置必须为省级学位委员会正名,实现三级学位管理体制的法定化;内容设计需要建立健全正当程序原则以及具体的程序性制度,最终构建符合我国国情的学位授权审核体制机制。
英文摘要:
      As the prerequisite for the exercise of degree conferring right, degree authorization review is not only an evaluation on the comprehensive strength of a university, but also a macro-control means of the central government. The degree authorization review plays an important role in the structural adjustment of academic degree mix, the allocation of university resources, and the construction of key disciplines. However, the practical problems of this system cannot be ignored, for example, the quota allocation only strictly in accordance with administrative instructions is a hindrance to the execution of the school-running autonomy; the vertical relationship between the upper and lower authorities has not been fully expressed lawfully, and the discretion in the review process is too large. In order to legalize the review on academic degree authorization, the author puts forward that we must place the review wholly into the attribute of administrative permit and abide by the relevant regulations stipulated in the Administrative Permission Law of the People's Republic of China and that the reviewers must come from the same profession and the peer review mechanism must be made more specific. The author also puts forward that the supervision mode should be changed from the quota pre-control to the dynamic process supervision, and more play should be given to the role of the self-regulation of the competition mechanism in the education market. The author advocates that in terms of authorization configuration, the functions of provincial academic degree committees must be recognized and a three-level academic degree management system must be legalized, and in terms of content design, a due process principle should be established and improved as well as specific procedural regulations. The author believes that only in this way can we finally work out a better system and a better mechanism in line with the national conditions for academic degree authorization review.
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