文章摘要
美国在学博士规模究竟有多大:测算模型及其应用
How Large Is the Doctoral Student Size in the United States? The Measurement Model and its Application
投稿时间:2018-09-13  
DOI:
中文关键词: 在学博士规模;测算模型;生均研发经费;美国
英文关键词: doctoral student size;measurement model;per-student R&D fund;the United States
基金项目:清华大学未来教育与评价研究院课题"研究生教育发展指数研究"(2018IFEE002)
作者单位
王传毅 清华大学 教育研究院, 北京 100084 
杨佳乐 清华大学 教育研究院, 北京 100084 
李伊明 清华大学 教育研究院, 北京 100084 
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中文摘要:
      现有研究大多基于学位授予数表征一国的研究生教育规模,但该指标掩盖了培养过程中修业年限、入学率和辍学率等重要特征。当前美国教育统计中心也仅提供了博士学位授予数,而未提供在学人数,这严重制约了基于生均类指标所开展的比较研究。本研究在考虑美国在学博士生完成率和流失率的基础上构建了在学博士规模测算模型,该模型测算结果显示:2015-2016年度,美国名义在学博士生48万人,实际在学博士生37万人,均显著超过我国当年的在学博士生规模32万人。在维持世界第一的在学博士规模的同时,美国博士生均R&D经费也居于世界前列,与在学博士规模约为美国1/4的德国相当。美国的博士学位授予规模扩张以学术类博士为主,职业实践类博士的学位授予数基本稳定在一定区间。
英文摘要:
      At present, most researches on the size of postgraduate education in a country are mainly based on the number of the degrees conferred, yet this index does not show such important factors as study duration, admission rate, and dropout rate during the cultivation process. So far the US National Center for Education Statistics only provides the number of Ph.D. degrees conferred but the population of doctoral students, which seriously restricts the comparative research based on per-student indicators. Based on the consideration of the completion rate and dropout rate of the doctoral students in the United States, the authors construct a model to measure the doctoral student population at universities. According to the calculation by this model, the nominal doctoral students in the United States from the year 2015 to 2016 were 480,000, with an actual doctoral student population of 370,000, exceeding significantly the doctoral student population of 320,000 at universities in China the same year. While maintaining the largest size of the doctoral student population in the world, the per-student R&D fund in the United States also ranks at the forefront in the world, nearly equal to that in Germany that has about one-fourth of the doctoral students in the United States. In the United States, the scale expansion of Ph.D. degree conferring mainly goes to academic categories, while the number of professional Ph.D. degree conferred basically remains stable in a certain range.
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