文章摘要
知识转型下学术职业变革与博士教育发展:特征、挑战与行动
Academic Career Changes in Response to Knowledge Transformation vs. Doctoral Education Development:Features, Challenges and Countermeasures
投稿时间:2017-09-07  
DOI:
中文关键词: 知识转型;学术职业;博士教育;变革
英文关键词: knowledge transformation;academic career;doctoral education;change
基金项目:
作者单位
王轶玮 清华大学 教育研究院, 北京 100084 
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中文摘要:
      20世纪中后期以来,知识成为推动经济发展的先导力量和决定性因素,知识数量不断增加、更新速度加快,更重要的是知识增长模式也在发生转变。知识转型对学术职业以及作为学术职业之源的博士教育产生了冲击与挑战,学术职业与博士教育从紧耦合转变为松耦合甚至解耦的状态。学术职业发展呈现出学术职业场所的社会弥散性、学术职业的国际流动性、学术工作合同的临时性以及博士后比例增加的特征。本文分析博士教育出现的问题以及西方主要发达国家发起的旨在适应劳动力市场变化的一系列博士教育改革行动。
英文摘要:
      Since the mid and late 20th century, knowledge has become the leading force and decisive factor to drive economic growth. Knowledge increases constantly, knowledge upgrading accelerates and more importantly, the mode of knowledge increase has changed. Knowledge transformation has registered impact and challenges on academic careers and doctoral education that is the source of professionals for academic careers. The coupling between academic careers and doctoral education has changed from a tight connection to a loose connection, or even to no connection. Now the status quo of academic careers shows job dispersivity in society, international mobility of talented personnel, temporality because of short-term contracts and increase of postdoctoral graduates. This paper analyzes the challenges to doctoral education arising from the changing labor market and the countermeasures taken by major developed Western countries to adapt doctoral education to the changes of labor market.
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