文章摘要
美国学科专业目录的演进逻辑、建构机理与本土借鉴
The Evolution Logic, Construction Mechanism, and Experience Referenceof the Classification of Instructional Programs in the United States
投稿时间:2023-12-18  
DOI:10.19834/j.cnki.yjsjy2011.2024.03.13
中文关键词: 美国;学科专业分类目录;交叉学科;演进逻辑;建构机理
英文关键词: The United States;CIP;interdiscipline;evolution logic;construction mechanism
基金项目:天津市教委社科重大项目"研究生教育质量评价体系研究与实践"(2020JWZD48)
作者单位
胡德鑫 天津大学 教育学院, 天津 300354 
刘畅 天津大学 教育学院, 天津 300354 
贺文杰 天津大学 教育学院, 天津 300354 
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中文摘要:
      自1980年以来,美国先后5次修订学科专业分类目录,已逐步形成独具特色、科学完备的成熟制度体系。美国学科专业分类目录的革新是内外部多要素、多方力量交互耦合的动态过程,其演进逻辑是以政府主持为主导的规制性驱动系统、以多主体协作为支持的规范性驱动系统、以经济转型升级为引领的社会认知性驱动系统协同作用,赋能其学科群、专业类与专业、新兴交叉学科等核心要素结构进行调整,再自下而上反馈于构建行为主体修订、发布,此过程循环往复、螺旋式提升。其建构机理即科学严谨与民主开放的建构理念;"三要求"与"四标准"的修订条件;"收集数据+统计分析""调研论证+拟定草案"与"集体审议+公众反馈"三阶段的科学评议程序。未来应通过赋能制度创新与理顺运行机制、建立各学历层次目录协同管理与修订机制、持续推进学科专业结构布局优化、推动新兴交叉学科发展等途径加强我国学科专业目录建设。
英文摘要:
      Since 1980, the United States has revised the Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) five times, gradually forming a unique and rationally complete mature institutional system. The dynamic CIP reform is a dynamic process featuring interactive coupling between internal and external multiple factors and forces. The evolution logic shows that, under the collaborative synergy of three major elements, i.e. the regulatory driving system led by the government, the normative driving system supported by multi-agent collaboration, and the social cognitive driving system guided by economic transformation and upgrading, the reform enables the adjustment of core elements such as discipline groups, specialties, majors, and emerging inter-disciplines, which will be submitted upward to the construct behavior authorities for revision and promulgation. The process is a cyclical and spiral evolution. The construct mechanism of the CIP in the United States includes a scientific, rigorous, democratic and open construct concept, the revision goals to meet the "three requirements" and "four standards", and the strict three-stage evaluation process of "data collection + statistical analysis", "research and argumentation + draft formulation", and "collective review + public feedback". Based on the study, this paper proposes some measures to strengthen the construction of the CIP in China in the future, including empowerment to institutional innovation, rationalization of operation mechanism, establishment of a collaborative catalog management and a revision mechanism at different education background levels, promotion of the optimization of disciplinary structure and layout in a continuous manner, and promotion of the development of emerging interdisciplines.
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